Historically, the formation of modern man occurred under the influence of factors that are typical for other species of terrestrial inhabitants. But, studying our evolution, it is necessary to take into account that the appearance of man is a unique event, in this case there is a transition to a new type of existence of living matter - social or social. It was a huge leap that separated man from the animal world. What are the main factors of anthropogenesis?
Fruits of evolution
The evolutionary transformations of our ancestors, conditioned by the influence of natural selection, were biologically determined by the social patterns that developed in the future. Of course, the features that characterize the modern man did not appear immediately - it took several million years. In particular, the upright movement that freed our hands for work arose at the initial stage of development of Australopithecus. Also, over a period of several million years, the mass of the brain has increased. But in the final stages of the development of our brain, there was no increase in its mass,and a certain constructive reorganization of this body, as a result of which the social aspect of the human psyche developed. Without a doubt, the main factor of anthropogenesis is the birth of labor activity, the ability to produce tools. This event was a qualitative leap, a turning point from phylogenesis (biological history) to social history.
Biological factors of anthropogenesis
The term “anthropogenesis” (anthroposociogenesis) denotes the general course of the processes of evolutionary-historical development of the physical image of a person, the initial formation of his speech, work activity and society. The problems of anthropogenesis are studied in the science of anthropology. Without the influence of biological as well as social factors, anthropogenesis would be impossible. Biological factors (the driving force of evolution) are common for both humans and the rest of wildlife. They also include natural selection and hereditary variation. The importance of biological factors for human evolution revealed Charles Darwin. Especially important role played by these factors in the early stage of human evolution.The resulting hereditary changes determined in particular the height of a person, the color of his eyes and hair, and resistance to external influences. At the early stage of evolution, man was largely dependent on natural factors. Survived and left offspring in such circumstances, the one who possessed useful for these conditions hereditary characteristics.
Social factors of anthropogenesis
These factors include the social way of life, work, speech, and developed consciousness. Independently make the instrument of labor can only man. Certain animals only use certain objects in order to get food (in order to get the fruit from the branch, the monkey takes a stick). Thanks to the work activity of the human ancestors, the so-called anthropomorphism occurred - the consolidation of physiological and morphological changes. The most important factor of anthropomorphism in human evolution was erect. From generation to generation, natural selection has kept individuals with hereditary characteristics conducive to upright walking. Over time, an S-shaped spine adapted to the vertical position was formed, massive leg bones, a broad chest and pelvis, and a vaulted foot developed.
The main factor of anthropogenesis
The straightness freed the hands. At first, the hand performed only the most simple movements, but in the process of doing work it improved and acquired the ability to perform complex actions. In this sense, we can conclude that the hand is not only an organ of labor, but also its product. Having developed his hands, a person got the opportunity to manufacture the simplest tools, in the struggle for existence this became an important trump card.
Joint work contributed to the rapprochement of the members of the genus, it became necessary to exchange sound signals. So communication caused the need for the development of the signal system of the second plan - communication through words. The first means of communication was the exchange of gestures and individual primitive sounds. Further mutations and natural selection transformed the larynx and oral apparatus, which formed speech. The ability to speak and the ability to work developed thinking. Thus, for a long time, human evolution took place in the interaction of social and biological factors.