Bronchopneumonia in children: symptoms, treatment. How to treat bronchopneumonia in children?
Focal pneumonia, or bronchopneumonia, is an inflammatory disease that affects small areas of the lung. Most often, bronchopneumonia develops in young children (up to 2-3 years). In today's article, let's talk more about this disease, consider the symptoms, causes and methods of therapy of pathology. Also recommendations on the treatment of bronchopneumonia of such a famous children's doctor and TV presenter as Evgeny Olegovich Komarovsky will be given.
Bronchopneumonia in children requires adequate and timely treatment, otherwise the outcome of the disease can be sad. Therefore, parents should take this disease seriously and take action at the first symptoms of the disease.
Causes of pathology
Bronchopneumonia, or focal pneumonia, in children develops under the influence of various bacteria and viruses. Most often precede such a disease is the infection of the upper respiratory tract. For example, it can cause bronchitis or ARVI. The most common pathogens are streptococci, pneumococci and many viruses.
Also, pneumonia can develop when food gets into the airways, squeezing the lungs with a tumor, inhaling poisonous gases, and also as a result of surgical intervention.
In children, this pathology is manifested by the following symptoms:
- pallor of the skin;
- increased fatigue;
- cough (both wet and dry) with discharge sputum;
- shortness of breath;
- heart palpitations up to 110 beats per minute;
- wheezing when listening with a stethoscope;
- leukocytosis (increase of leukocytes in the blood);
- increased ESR (sedimentation rate of erythrocytes);
- increase in body temperature to 39 ºС.
The centers of inflammation, as a rule, are concentrated on bronchioles and are present either in both lungs (most often) or in one of them. Proceeding from this, a right-sided bronchopneumonia, left-sided or bilateral, is diagnosed in the child. It is possible to detect foci of inflammation only by radiography. Most often in pediatrics, there is bilateral bilateral bronchopneumonia in a child. With timely treatment, such a pathology is successfully treated.
The most dangerous bronchopneumonia in children without temperature, although this state is rare. The fact is that this particular form of the disease is most often left without parents' attention. Due to the lack of adequate treatment, the process is prolonged and aggravated. Parents should be alerted to any deviations in the behavior and well-being of the child. Only in this way it is possible to detect the disease and start treatment on time, thus protecting the baby from serious consequences.
Provided timely and quality therapy, the child will recover after 2-3 weeks. If treatment is delayed or carried out incorrectly, bronchopneumonia can provoke serious complications, namely:
- purulent otitis media;
- serous, or purulent, pleurisy;
- myocardial dystrophy;
Bronchopneumonia in children: treatment
In such a difficult period, the kid needs special attention and proper care. This disease is very serious, therefore parents should necessarily know how to treat bronchopneumonia in children.
Based on the results of blood tests and X-rays, the doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Therapy is aimed primarily at resorption of inflammatory foci. Antibiotics should be prescribed only in severe cases - this is what the well-known pediatrician EO Komarovsky insists on. Bronchopneumonia in children, if it is provoked by viral diseases, should be treated with antiviral drugs. Antibiotics in this case will not only be ineffective, but also can provoke serious complications. But in some situations without such strong medicines still can not do. In the event that the temperature of the child is greatly increased, there are signs of intoxication of the body, the child is weakened, the use of antibiotics is justified. However, only a specialist should prescribe the necessary dose of medicine. Self-medication can threaten not only health, but also the life of the child. Also, Dr. Komarovsky points out the advisability of carrying out physiotherapy procedures and adherence to the diet. Regardless of what the child has: right-sided bronchopneumonia, left-sided or bilateral - treatment should be comprehensive and symptomatic, depending on the cause of the disease.
Therapy of a typical form of bronchopneumonia can be performed at home, treatment of more complex cases should be performed in a hospital. This is due to the fact that the outcome of some forms of the disease can be lethal, so the constant supervision of a specialist is very important. If bronchopneumonia is diagnosed in children, treatment should be started by contacting a pulmonologist (specialist in lung diseases). After consultation with a doctor, people's remedies can be used to treat the disease.
Recipes of traditional medicine will help to improve the child's well-being and speed up the recovery process.
Honey and birch buds
750 г buckwheat honey (if there is none - you can use the usual) heat it over low heat, bring it to a boil. Add to honey 100 g of birch buds. Stir the mixture thoroughly and hold 7-8 minutes on low heat. After a lot of drain and cool. In a glass of boiled water, dilute a teaspoon of the obtained formula and give the child for 30 minutes before bedtime.
Collect the leaves of plantain, carefully wash, squeeze and dry for some time. Then spread a large towel or sheet on the bed and spread out the leaves of the plantain in an even layer. Top on them with a backrest put the baby, the remaining leaves to attach to his chest. Then the child is well wrapped in a wool blanket and left so all night. To conduct this procedure should be as many times as necessary.
Pour into a sterile 3-liter jar 500 ml of medical tar, top up with boiling water, close tightly and leave for 9 days in a warm place. A teaspoon of the obtained composition should be given to the child before going to bed. The taste of the remedy is not very pleasant, so the baby can eat something sweet after it, most importantly, do not drink the medicine with water.
In a clean plastic cup, you should make a few holes. Clean the garlic head and finely chop it. Put the mass in a glass and let the baby breathe on it for 15 minutes. It is recommended to conduct such a procedure as often as possible.
The skin of the child in the lungs should be well spread with honey. In a solution of water and vodka (in the ratio 1: 3) soak a clean cloth and apply from above. Then wrap the treated area with food film and wrap it with a woolen cloth. Twice a day, the compress should be changed to a new one.
Diet and diet
At the initial stage of the disease, bed rest is recommended. Be sure to daily ventilate and do a wet cleaning in the room where the child is. After the temperature of the body is normalized, it is allowed to walk outdoors. However, it is important to be careful and not to let the baby become hypothermic. After 2-3 weeks after recovery, the hardening procedures can be resumed, physical loads - not earlier than in 5-6 weeks.
There are no restrictions on food. It is important that the diet is balanced, with a high content of vitamins and proteins. It is necessary to ensure that food is frequent and fractional. You should know that kids are more prone to dehydration than adults. Such a threat is especially high against the background of increased body temperature. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the child with enough vitaminized liquid, it can be warm drinks, compotes, herbal teas, cold mineral water.
It is recommended to begin physiotherapeutic treatment after the body temperature is normalized. Useful are inhalations with medications that facilitate breathing and help to sputum, as well as chest massages.
To prevent such a disease as bronchopneumonia in children, it is important to observe the rules of personal hygiene and maintain a healthy lifestyle from early childhood:
- wash hands regularly with soap and water;
- adhere to a balanced diet;
- give enough time for physical activity;
- to observe a mode of a dream and rest.
Bronchopneumonia in children is certainly a serious disease, but it is successfully treated provided all the recommendations of a specialist are observed. Parents always need to be alert and pay attention to the slightest changes in the child's condition. Take care of your children and be healthy!