How do ultrasound?
The easiest, safest and most affordable methodto look into the inner world of a person is ultrasound diagnosis. With her help, the doctor has the opportunity to study the structure of organs that are inaccessible to external examination. Let's understand, what for do or make US, what its or his kinds exist and how to prepare for such kind of diagnostics.
What is ultrasound done for?
Modern medicine can not do withoutvarious kinds of visual diagnostics. After all, to establish the correct diagnosis, you need to see the problem that when the internal organs are ill, it is impossible to do. According to the patient's complaints and the results of a clinical examination, the doctor may suspect a violation of the work of a particular body, the analyzes will help him to establish whether the body is coping with its tasks. But what kind of structural changes prevent the body from performing its functions - remains unknown.
It is to establish violations in the structurethe body itself there are various methods of visual diagnostics: ultrasound, X-ray, MRI, CT and others. The popularity of ultrasound, in comparison with other methods, is explained by its high informativeness, universality, painlessness and ease of research, as well as low costs for its conduct. With the help of ultrasound it is possible to estimate the size of the organ, its components, determine the presence of cysts, tumors, seals, stones. The essence of the method is that different tissues, of which organs consist, conduct ultrasound in different ways: someone better, someone worse. The sensor detects reflected waves, and all this is displayed on the screen in the form of a picture.
For more information on what to do ultrasound, read the article Why do ultrasound.
How do ultrasound
There are several methods of ultrasound:
- simple scanning;
- transvaginal ultrasound;
- transrectal ultrasound;
- 3D and 4D ultrasound.
When scanning, the sensor slides over the surfacebody. To improve the conductivity of ultrasound, a special gel is applied to the body. Thus, the heart (echocardiography), the thyroid gland, the chest, joints, ligaments, blood vessels, liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, intestine, kidneys, pelvic organs (bladder, womb, ovaries, fallopian tubes , the vagina, in men - the prostate, the seminal bladder). Newborns make ultrasound of the brain through the fontanel (neurosonography). In adults, brain examination with ultrasound is impossible, since the bones of the skull do not pass ultrasound. Also, lungs can not be tested by this method. They have the ability to dissipate ultrasound, which makes it impossible to get a clear picture. Ultrasound is absolutely painless procedure. The only unpleasant sensation is the cool gel.
Transvaginal ultrasound, of course, onlywomen. Since in this case the sensor of a special shape, pre-lubricated with a lubricant, is injected directly into the vagina. This technique gives a clearer picture of the pelvic organs. After all, the sensor is closer to the structures under investigation, and therefore, less interference occurs between them. This is especially critical for women with excess weight, because fat interferes with ultrasound.
Transrectal ultrasound is done both for men and forwomen in the study of pelvic organs. In this case, the sensor is inserted into the rectum. To clear it of mucus and plaque, water can be introduced during the procedure.
Transvaginal and transrectal ultrasound may be accompanied by some discomfort. But there should be no particular pain.
The doctor-diagnostician with the help of the sensor examines the internal organs. If necessary, he can fix a picture on the screen of the device and measure the size of the organ, as well as print out a picture with pathology.
3D and 4D ultrasound
Classical ultrasoundallows you to get a flat image of the body. In most cases, the doctor is enough to analyze the structure of the organ. The 3D scanner has the ability to measure not only the width and length of the organ, but also its depth, which makes it possible to obtain a three-dimensional image. This helps the doctor to more accurately study the structure of the organ being examined.
4D ultrasound is a video of 3D ultrasound. In this case, you can investigate not only the structure of the organ, but also its work. For example, to observe how the blood moves through the heart. The optimal type of research can be chosen only by the doctor, taking into account the peculiarities of your structure, the organ being examined and the purpose of the procedure.
How to prepare for ultrasound
Most types of ultrasound are done without specialtraining. This applies to ultrasound of the kidneys, mammary glands, joints, soft tissues. Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs should be done on an empty stomach. If you suffer from increased gas production, you may be advised to perform a rectal examination.
Ultrasound of pelvic organs requires a fullBladder. Therefore, before the procedure, patients are advised to drink water or tea and not to urinate. For more information, see How to do a small pelvic ultrasound.
Ultrasound in pregnancy
Women are advised to carry out 3-4 ultrasoundresearch for pregnancy. Thanks to this scheme, the child's development is monitored on different terms. The first study is conducted at 11-13 weeks, excluding gross malformations and confirming the fact of pregnancy. The second ultrasound is performed at 18-21 weeks to study the structure of the fetal organs and systems. At the 32nd week, once again monitor the absence of malformations, determine the sex of the child.
The doctor leading the pregnancy can prescribeAdditional studies, if required by a specific case. So, early ultrasound is prescribed for uterine bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, if a woman previously had problems with pregnancy.
In the early stages, it is usually recommended to passusual (2Д) ultrasound. At later dates, the doctor may prescribe a procedure for 3D or 4D ultrasound. This will help the specialist to more accurately assess the structure of the fetus, and you will have the opportunity to consider the face of the child, his facial expressions even before birth.
Although ultrasound is considered harmless for the child method, it is necessary to undergo it only on the recommendation of the doctor in strictly established periods.
If you still have questions about what ultrasound is and why it is done, read the article What is ultrasound.