How is allergy manifested in children?
Allergy is a perverse hypersensitivity of the human immune system to a particular external irritant (allergen). Allergy disease is highly individual. A substance that causes severe allergy in one person may be completely harmless to another. However, doctors have long noticed that some substances most often cause allergies in a large number of people. Among the most common allergens in the first place can be attributed pollen; bee and wasp poison; house dust containing microscopic mites; animal hair; drugs and some food products. Young children are especially at risk for allergies. Due to the imperfections of their immune system, children’s allergies develop much more often than adults.
How is allergy in children
Allergies can have the following local manifestations:
- allergic rhinitis, accompanied by itching, nasal congestion, sneezing and copious flow of nasal discharge;
- allergic conjunctivitis, manifested by rezu and burning in the eyes, their redness and strong tearing;
- indigestion - nausea, diarrhea, in rare cases vomiting;
- skin manifestations - itching, redness, rash, swelling, peeling, urticaria, etc.
The most dangerous systemic manifestation of allergy is anaphylactic shock. It arises suddenly and its manifestations increase sharply. The main signs of anaphylactic shock as it develops are rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, blanching of the skin, convulsions. Then comes the loss of consciousness. If no medical assistance is provided in time, the child may fall into a coma. In severe cases, anaphylactic shock ends in death.
Allergy is manifested in different ways in different age groups of children.
How does an allergy manifest in a newborn baby
Newborns who are breastfed often have food allergies to those substances that enter breast milk from foods eaten by their mothers. In general, food allergies in infants have various skin manifestations such as:
- red bumpy rash on the face (especially on the cheeks), chest and abdomen;
- small bubbles on the skin, which some time after the appearance of the open and in their place are formed red weeping skin;
- dry scales on the scalp, eyelashes and eyebrows;
- itching and flaking of the skin.
In addition, there may be irregularities in the digestive system of the child - the baby often spits up, his stool becomes liquid and frequent.
How is milk allergy manifested?
If the baby is fully formula-fed, or milk formulas are used as complementary foods, the baby may develop an allergy to one of the components of the formula. Most often, cow milk is used as an allergen in such ready-made formulas. The external manifestations of dairy formula allergy are similar to those of breast milk allergy described above.
How is allergy in older children.
- Most often, children have food allergies. Such products as chocolate, honey, eggs, mushrooms, oranges and tangerines, strawberries, peanuts and fish can cause it.Symptoms of food allergies in children are urticaria, itchy skin, reddening of the skin of the cheeks, a rash on the face, chest, elbows and knees. In some cases, the child’s ears, nose and lips may swell. A more severe form of the manifestation of food allergies in children is weeping eczema, accompanied by severe itching.
- In addition to food allergies, children may develop an allergy to cats kept in the house. It is manifested by nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing and shortness of breath. Sometimes allergies to cats other than the above symptoms are accompanied by a red rash.
- In some children, after long walks in the cold, the skin on the face becomes red and swollen. Thus allergic to cold is manifested.
- Another type of allergy that is common in children is an allergy to pollen from flowering plants. In spring and early summer, children with allergies of this type have eyes watering, and liquid discharge from the nose in a continuous stream. The child often sneezes and complains of pain in the eyes. These are all typical manifestations of pollen allergy.