Kazan Powder Plant: History of Education
FKP "Kazan Powder Plant" - a largeenterprise OPK, specializing in the release of gunpowder, charges, pyrotechnic products and other products. For 228-year-old history, millions of tons of explosives for various purposes have been released here.
Foundation of the enterprise
With the development of the eastern lands of Russia overduethe need to build a powder plant closer to the main consumers: explorers, merchants, mining workers. The place for construction was chosen by Kazan, which is located in the center of waterways and land routes. According to the Kama, ammunition was delivered to the Urals, then to Siberia, and along the Volga to the Caucasus and the Caspian.
The Kazan Powder Plant earned in 1788. Given the fire danger of the enterprise, it was initially entrusted to work on it to people responsible and able to handle ammunition: soldiers and officers. Later, a specialized school was organized, where the children of servicemen were taught dangerous crafts. Around the shops was formed the Powder Sloboda, here workers were allocated allotments for housing.
Support of the Fatherland
The Kazan powder plant was loaded with work intime of military conflicts, which is rich in Russian history. The wars with Sweden, Turkey, Napoleon, European campaigns demanded an increase in productivity. This was achieved by expanding production. The enterprise grew, new workshops were opened, and then the railway was also brought to the plant. During the first 100 years of operation, the plant produced 2 million poods of gunpowder.
By the end of the XIX century, the bullpen carried out a number of upgrades and mastered the production of smokeless pyroxylin powder. Annually the enterprise produced unprecedented volumes for that time - up to 500,000 poods.
After the chaos of the Civil War, the enterprisegradually gaining momentum. The active rearmament in the 1930s contributed to the development of the material and technical base. The second world Kazan powder plant met fully armed. Ammunition was sorely lacking. Day and night, without days off workers released the necessary gunpowder and charges. Most of the men went to defend their country, women and teenagers stood behind the machines.
The war showed that the army needs moreeffective ammunition. For the development of new components, engineers from the Special Technical Bureau No. 40 took part. They created samples of "revolutionary" explosives with unique characteristics for that time. The artillerymen praised the production of the bullpen for its trouble-free operation and the highest quality. Particular pride of the factory workers was the charges for "Katyusha".
The newest time
In the 90th the enterprise facedunclaimed products. The confusion in the management led to the threat of bankruptcy. In 2002, the government decided to restore production. Its current name Kazan State Powder Plant found in 2002 after a major reorganization. In 2003, a much-needed 50-million grant was allocated to pay off debts and re-launch ammunition. Today, the bullpen is a strategic plant that is in federal ownership.
For two centuries, explosive production has happened more than once. The fires that led to mass detonation of ammunition in 1830 and 1884 are known.
08/14/1917 there was a real catastrophe - because of the fire, the Kazan Powder Plant literally took off. Director Lieutenant-General Luknitsky, almost the entire administration, hundreds of factory workers, dozens of residents of the Powder Sloboda perished. Were destroyed 10,000 machine guns, millions of ready-made shells. I had to start the production from scratch.
On March 24, 2017, in Shop No. 3 detonated a charge that frightened the citizens of Kazan. A flaming flame and smoke cubes were visible from all parts of the city. People died.
The Powder Factory (Kazan) was listedenterprises of the defense industry, where it is planned to re-equip production by 2020. The last time a significant reconstruction at the bullpen was held 30 years ago. General Director Khalil Giniyatov says that by 2020 it will be a modern, high-tech, safe plant for the production of high-energy powders.
On a number of sections automated complexesreplaced by dozens and hundreds of workers. For example, in the nitration department, a new complex monitors the operation of several key components: a hammer mill (pulping cellulose), an acid wetting agent and a 20-cubic meter reactor. Previously, all dangerous operations were carried out manually. Today, one operator in complete safety monitors the entire process technology on a computerized control panel.
The Kazan powder plant is actively operating in the domestic and foreign markets. They produce 100 tons of gunpowder per month. Production provides earnings of 2000 people.
For military needs, the bullpen produces:
- gunpowder of various kinds;
- paint and varnish production;
- other chemical materials for the organization of production of ammunition.
The bullpen also implements "peaceful" products:
- hunting and sports cartridges;
- anodes-earthing switches for cathodic protection of pipelines and underground metal structures.
The geography of deliveries is extensive. These are defense and civil enterprises of Russia (Yoshkar-Ola, Izhevsk, Sarapul, Votkinsk, Klimovsk, Sergiev Posad, Lyubertsy, Khimki, Ekaterinburg, Severouralsk), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Cyprus, Venezuela, India, Algeria, Uganda and other countries. For the stable release of high-quality and safe products for the consumer, the powder plant (Kazan) in 2012 was awarded the highest award of the "Quality Leader" contest by the government of Tatarstan.