The English bourgeois revolution
The English bourgeois revolution, whose causeswere formed even under Elizabeth 1, history divides into four stages. The first was the constitutional stage. He was followed by civil war. Then began the struggle for democratic content and another civil war. The English bourgeois revolution of the 17th century ended with the formation of an independent republic.
As already mentioned, between the Parliament and the Crownthe struggle was unleashed even under Elizabeth 1. During the reign of Charles 1, this confrontation led to the dissolution of the parliament. After this, the English bourgeois revolution, which was also called the "Great Mutiny," began.
As an ideological weapon for the oppositionwas a large-scale religious and political public association - Puritanism. The Puritan movement was distinguished by its diversity of views and complexity in the socio-political structure. This led to the formation of three main trends within the association at the beginning of the confrontation.
Presbyterians belonged to the first. This current included the landed aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. They demanded the establishment of a constitutional monarchy.
The second course was made up by the independents. Among them were representatives of the petty and middle nobility, the middle strata of the urban bourgeoisie. They advocated a limited constitutional monarchy with the proclamation and recognition of the inalienable freedoms of all subjects.
From the course of the Independents, the Levellers were distinguished, supported by peasants and artisans. Levellers defended the idea of nationwide equality, sovereignty, fought for the establishment of the republic.
The English bourgeois revolution developed very rapidly. This acceleration contributed to the defeat of the country in 1639 in the Anglo-Scottish war.
The situation was quite tense. Urban and peasant uprisings, discontent among merchants and financiers, lack of money put the monarch in a desperate situation. As a result, Charles 1 convened a new parliament, which was called Dolgim. From this moment on, the English bourgeois revolution passed to the second, constitutional stage.
The long parliament adoptedThe triennial act (which established the convening of the parliament every three years, regardless of the royal will), the bill that the parliament can not be dissolved without his consent. The Great Restoration was also adopted, in which the interests of the new nobility and the bourgeoisie were reflected.
Thus, the adopted acts significantlylimited the power of the crown, while contributing to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. The Presbyterians, who were in power in the parliament, feared the development of the revolution.
The King in 1642, at the end of the summer announcedparliament war. The English bourgeois revolution developed into the first civil war. In connection with the indecision of the policy of the prosviterians, the parliament was defeated. The military leadership was taken up by the independents.
However, by the summer of 1645, the parliamentary army wasreorganized. Civil war (the first) ended with the defeat of the royal troops. Presbyterian parliament considered the revolution complete, it was satisfied with the formed position and political system in the country on the principle of a constitutional monarchy.
However, the other two currents (the Lwellers andindependents) aspired to more drastic changes. In 1648, the second civil war broke out between the Independents and the Presbyterian Parliament. As a result of the struggle, the former took London, excluding the Presbyterian majority from the Long Parliament.
After the royal execution in 1649, England became a republic. Since that moment, the supreme power was in the hands of a unicameral parliament.
The leaders of the independents, headed by Cromwell, established a military dictatorship. The leaders of the Levellers who supported them were imprisoned.
The dictatorial regime fell after the death of Cromwell. In 1659 the country was formally established in the country. As a result of the coup in 1688-89, a compromise was established between the landed aristocracy and the bourgeoisie.