The state budget and its structure
The financial system of each state includesyourself budget. This document is a very complex mechanism, the effect of which has an impact on the standard of living of the country, its economy and the structure of the state system. The state budget and its structure should be balanced.
First, you need to understand what isbudget. This is a system that is fixed by the constitution or the legislation in the field of finance. Each country has its own state budget and its structure. It depends on the structure of the state and the economic situation.
The state budget and its structure can consist of several levels. In Russia, this system has its own characteristics. It is divided into the following levels.
1. The federal budget and non-budgetary funds of state significance.
2. Budgets of the subjects of Russia and its other territorial associations.
3. Budgets of local importance. This includes municipal, city budgets and budgets of rural settlements.
From this it follows that the state budget and its structure are determined by economic relations within the state and outside it, as well as by the establishment of the state system.
The economic side of the budgetary system is monetary relations, which depend on the principles of their formation, distribution and use.
Each country fixes the state budget and its structure at its own discretion. Its principles can be stipulated in the constitution or a separate law of federal significance.
If you look at Russia,its significance is the federal budget. Then follows the budgets of territorial associations and local significance. The Russian budget system has a four-level structure. This organization is typical for some other federal countries.
Countries that have a unitary system of the state system usually use a two-tier budget system. Here distinguish the state budget and local budgets.
Budgets that have one level are now very rare. They are inherent mainly in countries in which there is a monarchy, in whose hands is the entire money turnover.
In Russia, a budget code has been worked out, it specifies all the principles by which the state budget and its structure are developed.
The budget of the federal level includes a planexpenditure and the arrival of funds for the financial year or a certain planning period. These funds are intended to fulfill obligations at the state level.
The budget of the entities is a plan for the expenditure and receipt of funds necessary to fulfill their obligations.
The budget of municipal entities and subjects of local self-government consists of revenues and expenditures that are intended to fulfill the obligations of these bodies of the Russian Federation.
Thus, the budget of the state is a special form of the arrival and expenditure of money resources, including all the resources of the country, including federal, regional and local significance.
The subjects of regional and local self-government can not use other organizational forms of financial planning for expenditures and revenues, except for the budget.
There are extrabudgetary funds thatare intended for special use and fulfillment of obligations. Such funds exist both at the federal level and at the level of other regional or local actors.
Usually, the budget is approved for the next financial year, which often coincides with the calendar year. It also covers the planning period, which includes two years following the financial year.