What is the myocardium?
One of the most important organs in the human body is the heart. It is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body, so that nutrients and oxygen are delivered to its most distant corners. In addition, the pumped blood removes from the organs of the surplus of various substances, as well as residues from cell activity. Problems with blood circulation and the work of the heart can cause many different diseases that affect the functioning of all organs.
Due to the fact that in the modern world we have become less mobile, we eat unhealthy food and have a lot of bad habits, it becomes harder for the heart to cope with its tasks. On the basis of poor environmental conditions, diseases can develop, about which most of the world's population did not even think about 100-200 years ago. For example, the causes of arrhythmias (a fairly common disease of the cardiovascular system) can be daily stress, heavy work schedules, congenital malformations, as well as many other factors.
It is worth noting that the heart muscle works non-stop throughout a person’s life. This is due to the functions it performs and the features of the structure. The heart is a closed organ with four internal cavities, called the atria (left and right) and ventricles (left and right). His right side provides the movement of blood in the small circle of blood circulation, and the left - in a large circle of blood circulation. The most massive part of the heart is the left side, as it pumps a much larger volume of blood.
What is the myocardium and why is it needed?
Myocardium is the middle layer of the walls of the ventricles of the heart, which is made up of muscles and plays a major role in the entire body - pumps blood. The myocardium of the left ventricle is most developed, since it pumps blood through a greater number of vessels than the right ventricle.
In addition, the walls of both ventricles have 2 more layers: external (epicardium) and internal (endocardium). The epicardium is the outer shell of the heart muscle, it completely covers the organ and protects the muscle from contact with the rest of the internal organs.In turn, the endocardium acts as the inner lining of the organ, which constantly comes into contact with blood and has a special structure that allows to avoid the occurrence of blood clots. This "cover" is not only in the heart, it continuously passes into all internal vessels, where it is called the endothelium.
What diseases can myocardium suffer?
The most difficult and most common heart problem is myocardial infarction. This disease is a type of coronary heart disease, during which there is necrosis of a part of the heart muscle (myocardium). It appears due to the partial or complete stop of the blood supply to a certain part of the organ, as a result of which necrosis of several fibers of the heart muscle may develop. With an extensive heart attack, death is possible, as the heart cannot cope with the tasks assigned to it.
There are various signs of heart attack, among which are the following:
- severe pain in the chest, in the region of the heart (the so-called anginal pain);
- pain and discomfort around the scapula, in the back, in the throat or hand;
- in the presence of diabetes, pain often does not occur;
- the occurrence of unproductive cough, severe shortness of breath and the appearance of signs of heart failure;
- sudden cardiac arrest or arrhythmia.
It should be noted that as a result of a heart attack, hypoxia can develop - a lack of oxygen supply to various internal organs. If the heart cannot cope with its functions, all other organs immediately suffer, as less blood is pumped to them, and they may experience oxygen starvation.
In addition, ischemic cerebral stroke can develop as a result of myocardial infarction. Most often this occurs in people over the age of 60 years. When this disease occurs, the blockage of blood vessels supplying the brain. As a result, a part of this body loses its functionality, a person may become incapacitated, his coordination, speech, etc. may be disturbed. In many cases, heart attacks are fatal.
When a stroke occurs, a person may lose consciousness, in addition, symptoms such as stupor, impaired consciousness, severe drowsiness / agitation, nausea, dizziness, loss of orientation in time and space may occur.
Treatment of heart attacks and strokes takes place under the watchful supervision of medical personnel. Such patients are necessarily in the hospital, since at home it is impossible to provide the necessary assistance in case of deterioration. If you suspect one of these diseases, you should immediately consult a doctor to establish an accurate diagnosis.